Application Exercise 10k Data analysis
- Explain what is meant by ‘extreme poverty’.
Extreme poverty is a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services. Those living on less than $1.90 per day are classified as living in extreme poverty.
- Describe the overall trend in the proportion of the world’s population living in ‘extreme poverty’ since 1990.
Overall, since 1990, there has been a downward trend in the proportion of the world’s population living in extreme poverty, from 35% in 1990 to 8% in 2018.
- Explain how the trend described in your answer to part b. is likely to have affected the quality of life in developing countries.
It is likely that the quality of life of people living in developing countries is likely to have improved, both in material terms (access to goods and services) and in non-material terms (generally wellbeing, as measured by factors other than access to goods and services, such as nutrition, education, health and life satisfaction.)
- According to the data, which area of the world lifted the largest proportion of its population out of poverty over the time period shown?
Over the time period shown, Asia has lifted the largest proportion of its population out of poverty.
- Explain what is meant by undernourishment and describe the likely social and economic impacts of undernourishment in a country.
Undernourishment refers to people’s intake of food being below the minimum level needed to meet their dietary requirements. In simple terms, it means that they don’t get enough to eat to carry on their normal daily tasks and live a decent life. Socially, high rates of undernourishment mean that there would be large numbers of individuals who could not fully participate in life, as they are hungry much of the time and do not have enough energy to complete tasks. In addition, economically this would mean that the potential labour force of the country is likely to be much less productive, given that high numbers of people lack sufficient nutrition to perform daily tasks – such as working – to their full potential.
- Describe the correlation between undernourishment and country income classification.
There is a correlation between undernourishment and country income classification. Countries classified as high income have very low rates of undernourishment on average (around 2.5%), whereas countries classified as low income have very high rates of undernourishment (between 25 and 30%) over the period shown (in Chart. 10.12).
- Describe the correlation between undernourishment, poverty and conflict according to the data provided.
According to the data provided, apart from Sub-Saharan Africa, regions affected by conflict have the highest rates of extreme poverty. Given these regions have high rates of extreme poverty, they will likely also have high rates of undernourishment, given the correlation between low income and undernourishment, shown in Chart 10.12.
- Which region of the world experiences the highest and lowest rates of undernourishment according to the data provided.
According to the data, Sub-Saharan Africa experiences the highest rates of undernourishment (around 20%), while Europe and Central Asia has the lowest rates of undernourishment (around 2.5%).
- Describe the trend in in rates of undernourishment over the time period shown.
In some areas of the world there has been an upward trend in the rates of undernourishment between 2012 and 2019 (e.g. Pacific Island small states, the Middle East and North Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.) However, In other regions, the prevalence of undernourishment has remained stable (Europe and Central Asia) or fallen overall (e.g. East Asia and the Pacific, South Asia).